Proteins

Albumin (ALB)

Albumin is the most important binding and transport protein of the organism. The multitude functions of albumin are: Major contribution to plasma colloidal osmotic pressure, binding and transport of proteins, metal ions, bilirubin, free fatty acids, hormones, drugs, serving as an amino acid pool for protein synthesis and major antioxidant in plasma. Albumin measurements are made for monitoring patients with acute liver diseases, for suspected liver cirrhosis and monitoring patients with this disease, diagnosis of edematous status, prognosis of elderly, hospitalized patients.

Colorimetric test for the quantitative determination of albumin in human serum and plasma.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Albumin liquicolorMultipurpose reagent1 x 1000 ml10560
Albumin liquicolor Multipurpose reagent 4 x 100 ml 156004 
Albumin liquicolorSystem reagent for
4 x 60 tests10560300
Albumin liquicolorSystem reagent for
6 x  150 tests10560600


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anti-Streptolysin-O (ASL, ASO)

Anti-streptolysin-O are specific antibodies to streptolysin O, formed by an extracellular enzyme of group A ß-hemolytic streptococci. Streptococci are responsible for a variety of infections, including acute pharyngitis and other manifestations as glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever, bacterial endocarditis and scarlet fever. Antibodies against streptolysin O are detectable one week to one month after a streptococcal infection. Laboratory results should always be interpretated in conjunction with other clinical findings.

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of anti-streptolysin-O in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
anti-Strepolysin-O (ASO)Multipurpose reagent2 x 50 ml11251P
anti-Strepolysin-O (ASO)System reagent for
1 x 100 tests11251300
anti-Strepolysin-O (ASO)System reagent for
1 x  210 tests11251600


Required calibrators & controls

Apolipoprotein A1 (APO A1)

The apolipoproteins A1 are the main protein components of high-density lipoproteins (HDL-c). APO A1 has a role in the removal of excess cholesterol from the tissues and reduced levels of APO A1 have been observed in patients with coronary vascular disease. APO A1 measurements are frequently used in characterizing patients with genetic disorders that lead to low HDL cholesterol concentrations. Over the past several decades, decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been associated with increased risk of coronary vascular disease.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of apolipoprotein A1 in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Apolipoprotein A1
(APO A1)
Multipurpose reagent2 x 30 ml11101
Apolipoprotein A1
(APO A1)
System reagent for
1 x  70 tests11101600

Required calibrators & controls

Apolipoprotein B (APO B)

The apolipoproteins B are the main protein components of low density lipoproteins (LDL-c). APO B is necessary for the reaction with LDL receptors in the liver and on cell membranes and is thus involved in transporting cholesterol from the liver to the vessel cells. Elevated levels of APO B are frequently found in atherosclerotic vascular changes and are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Over the past several decades, decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been associated with increased risk of coronary vascular disease.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of apolipoprotein B in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Apolipoprotein B (APO B)Multipurpose reagent2 x 30 ml11102
Apolipoprotein B (APO B)System reagent for
1 x  70 tests11102600

Required calibrators & controls

Complement C3 (C3c)

Complement C3 (C3c) is the central point of the classic and alternative complement pathway. C3c is a constituent of C5 convertase. On activation split products of C3c have important biological functions. C3b is an opsonin and involved in immune adherence, C3a is an anaphylatoxin and a chemotoxin. C3c behaves also like an acute phase protein, therefore increased levels may be found in acute inflammatory reactions. Decreased levels are reported in complex diseases, recurrent immune infections with pyrogenic bacteria, various glomerulonephritides and in congenital deficiencies.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of complement C3 (C3c) in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Complement C3Multipurpose reagent2 x 20 ml11110
Complement C3System reagent for
1 x  70 tests11110600

Required calibrators & controls

Complement C4 (C4)

Complement C4 (C4) is a constituent of C3 convertase and C5 convertase. Measurements of complement proteins aid in the diagnosis of immunologic disorders, especially those associated with deficiencies of complement components. Decreased levels are found in hereditary angioedema, immune complex diseases and congenital deficiencies.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of complement 4 (C4) in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Complement C4Multipurpose reagent2 x 20 ml11113
Complement C4System reagent for
1 x 70 tests11113600

Required calibrators & controls

C-reactive protein (CRP)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein which is synthesised in the liver. Inflammatory processes, bacterial infections, polytrauma, myocardial infarction and certain other diseases (e.g. M. Bechterew, M. Crohn, rheumatoid arthritis) are accompanied by a significant increase of the CRP concentration. Following surgery the CRP concentration will also be elevated. It has been shown that persistently increased CRP levels may indicate a bad prognosis for the patients outcome. Therefore monitoring of the CRP concentration can be helpful to initiate necessary treatment in time.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of C-reactive protein in human serum and plasma.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
CRP BufferMultipurpose reagents4 x 100 ml11141
CRPMultipurpose reagents1 x 10 ml11241
CRPSystem reagent for
2 x 100 tests11241300
CRPSystem reagent for
5 x 250 tests11241600


Required calibrators & controls

Cystatin-C (CYSTC)

Cystatin-C is as an excellent biomarker of the GFR and used for diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. Cystatin-C is freely filtered through the glomerular membrane of the kidney and reabsorbed and degraded in the kidney cells. The concentration of Cystatin-C is only dependent on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) itself.

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of Cystatin-C in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Cystatin-C liquidirectMultipurpose reagents1 x  40 ml11150
Cystatin-C liquidirectSystem reagent for
2 x  100 tests11150600

Required calibrators & controls

Ferritin (FER)

Ferritin is the main iron storage protein in the body. Ferritin is found at low concentrations in serum and is directly proportional to the body’s iron store. In general, variations in total body iron stores are reflected in the ferritin level in serum. Measurement of ferritin may aid in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and hemochromatosis (iron overload).

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of ferritin in human serum und plasma.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
FerritinMultipurpose reagents1 x  37,5 ml11610
FerritinSystem reagent for
1 x  90 tests11610600

Required calibrators & controls

Glycohemoglobin HbA1 (HbA1c, HbA1)

The determination of HbA1c is performed for the long term control in diabetes mellitus. HbA1c values provide an indication of the average glucose levels over the preceding 4-8 weeks. A high HbA1c value indicates poor glycemic control. Long term therapy of the disease requires control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, preventing effective control of blood glucose levels can minimize long term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

Immunoassay for the direct photometric determination of HbA1c in whole blood with EDTA.

Immunoassay, direct method

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
HbA1c liquidirectMultipurpose reagent1 x  40 ml10770
HbA1c liquidirectSystem reagent for
1 x  135 tests10770600

Ion exchange resin separation method

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Glycohemoglobin HbA1Multipurpose reagent1 x 20 tests10657
Glycohemoglobin HbA1Multipurpose reagent1 x 100 tests10658

Required calibrators & controls

Hemoglobin (Hb)

The measurement of hemoglobin concentration is important for the diagnosis of anemia.

Colorimetric test for the quantitative determination of hemoglobin in capillary blood and whole blood with EDTA.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Hemoglobin liquicolorMultipurpose reagents10 x  500 ml10751

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Homocysteine (HCY)

Homocysteine is an amino acid that is formed from the metabolism of dietary proteins. Elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular and peripheral arterial disease. The cause of elevated levels is related to the concentration of homocysteine measured in blood and is mostly associated with renal disease, low vitamin B and/or folat intake or inborn defects in the metabolism of the essential amino acid methionine (677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene).

Enzymatic UV test for the quantitative determination of homocysteine in human serum and plasma. 

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Homocysteine liquiUVMultipurpose reagents1 x  34 ml11140
Homocysteine liquiUVSystem reagent for
1 x  250 tests11140600

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Immunoglobin A (IgA)

Immunoglobulins are the most important part of the humoral immune system of the organism. Of clinical interest are immunoglobulin deficiencies and increased levels of the immunoglobulins. Changes in serum immunoglobulin concentrations can be classified as follows:

  • Hypogammaglobulinemias: Individuals with secretory IgA deficiency are found to suffer more commonly from mucosal infections, atopy, and autoimmune diseases. Individuals with absent IgA have a higher than expected incidence of rheumatic disorders and lymphoma.
  • Polyclonal gammopathies: Increased levels occur in chronic liver disease, chronic infections, especially of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, neoplasia of the lower gastrointestinal tract,  inflammatory bowel disease, some immunodeficiency states such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies:  IgA multiple myeloma

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Immunoglobulins direct IgAMultipurpose reagents2 x 10 ml11501
Immunoglobulins direct BufferMultipurpose reagents4 x 40 ml11505
Immunoglobulins direct IgASystem reagent for
1 x 100 tests11501300*
Immunoglobulins direct IgASystem reagent for
1 x 250 tests11501600


Required calibrators & controls

Immunoglobin G (IgG)

IgG is particularly important in the body's long-term defence against infection as it presents a slower but more sustained response than IgM to primary antigenic stimulus; however, the levels of IgG rise rapidly and early on re-exposure to the same antigenic stimulus. IgG promotes phagocytosis and activates complement. IgG is the only immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta and is therefore of special importance in the infant’s defence against infection. Changes in serum immunoglobulin concentrations can be classified as follows:

  • Hypogammaglobulinemias: IgG deficiency may be genetic as in severe combined immunodeficiency or acquired as in AIDS. Definitive diagnosis requires extensive evaluation in the immune response. A decrease in IgG also occurs as a result of thermal burns, nephrotic syndrome, protein losing enteropathies and non-IgG myelomas.
  • Polyclonal gammopathies:  Increased levels of IgG in autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome), sarcoidosis, chronic liver disease, some parasitic diseases and chronic or recurrent infections.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies:  e.g. in IgG type multiple myeloma, lymphomas, leukemia, and other malignancies.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Immunoglobulins direct IgGMultipurpose reagents2 x 10 ml11502
Immunoglobulins direct BufferMultipurpose reagents4 x 40 ml11505
Immunoglobulins direct IgGSystem reagent for
1 x 100 tests11502300
Immunoglobulins direct IgGSystem reagent for
1 x 250 tests11502600


Required calibrators & controls

Immunoglobin M (IgM)

Immunoglobulins are the most important part of the humoral immune system of the organism. The essential functions of IgM in the immune response are the agglutination of pathogens and the activation of the classical complement pathway. Elevated levels of IgM in cord serum or during the first four weeks of life may indicate intrauterine or neonatal infections such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis or syphilis. Changes in serum immunoglobulin concentrations can be classified as follows:

  • Hypogammaglobulinemias: IgM deficiency is rare and is associated with recurrent pyrogenic infections.
  • Polyclonal gammopathies:  IgM levels are increased in primary biliary cirrhosis, haemoprotozoan infections such as malaria, viral or bacterial infections  and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies, e.g. in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in human serum. 

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Immunoglobulins direct IgMMultipurpose reagents2 x 10 ml11503
Immunoglobulins direct BufferMultipurpose reagents4 x 40 ml11505
Immunoglobulins direct IgMSystem reagent for
1 x 100 tests11503300
Immunoglobulins direct IgMSystem reagent for
1 x 250 tests11503600


Required calibrators & controls

Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a))

Lp(a) is a risk factor for coronary vascular disease that is independent of all other lipid parameters. The Lp(a) concentration in blood varies from almost undetectable levels to more than 100 mg/dl. Differences in Lp(a) levels are genetically determined and will not be much influenced by lifestyle. The presence of high Lp(a) levels in serum is a significant marker for an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary vascular disease, especially when Lp(a) and LDL-c concentrations are elevated simultaneously.

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of  lipoprotein (a) in human serum. 

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Lipoprotein (a), Lp(a)Multipurpose reagents1 x 3 ml11105
Lipoprotein (a), Lp(a)System reagent for
1 x 90 tests11105600

Required calibrators & controls

Microalbumin (MALB)

Microalbuminuria is considered a clinically important indicator of deteriorating renal function in diabetic subjects and regular screening is valuable in monitoring these patients. Prospective studies have demonstrated that increased urinary albumin excretion precedes and is highly predictive of diabetic nephropathy, end stage renal disease, and proliferative retinopathy in type I diabetes. In patients with type II diabetes increased urinary albumin excretion is an independent predictor of progressive renal disease, atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion, both independently and in conjunction with hyperinsulinemia, identifies a group of nondiabetic subjects at increased risk of coronary vascular disease.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of mircoalbumin in collected urine or random midstream urine.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
MicroalbuminMultipurpose reagents1 x 5 ml11120
MicroalbuminSystem reagent for
1 x 90 tests11120600

Required calibrators & controls

Rheumatoid Factors (RF)

Rheumatoid factors are autoantibodies (IgM, IgG) directed against the Fc-part of human IgGs. High titres of rheumatoid factors are found in different rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid diseases. Higher titres of rheumatoid factors are more common in patients with rapidly progressive joint destruction and in those with extraarticular manifestations such as subcutaneous rheumatic nodules. Positive rheumatoid factors are also seen in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and in non-rheumatic conditions with variable frequency e.g. SLE, Sjögren’s syndrome, subacute bacterial endocarditis and other bacterial infections, infectious hepatitis, chronic liver diseases, chronic active pulmonary diseases, parasitic infections and viral infections. Rheumatoid factors should not be the only criteria in the diagnosis of rheumatoid disease but be considered in conjunction with clinical symptoms.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of rheumatoid factors (IgM) in human serum.

Immunoturbidimetric method

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Rheumatoid Factors (RF)Multipurpose reagents2 x  50 ml11261P
Rheumatoid Factors (RF)System reagent for
1 x  100 tests11261300
Rheumatoid Factors (RF)System reagent for
1 x  210 tests11261600

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Rheumatoid Factors (RF)Multipurpose reagents2 x  50 ml11261PA


Required calibrators & controls

Transferrin (TRF)

Transferrin is the principle plasma protein for the transport of iron. Transferrin is a negative acute phase reactant and will decrease during any inflammatory state or malignancy. Increased levels of transferrin are found in iron deficiency, pregnancy, oestrogen administration and lipoidal nephrosis. Decreased levels may be encountered in hereditary deficiencies, testosterone administration, infection, acute inflammation, some forms of nephrosis, tumors, haemochromatosis, acute malaria and malnutrition.

Immunoturbidimetric test for the quantitative determination of transferrin in human serum.

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
TransferrinMultipurpose reagents2 x 30 ml11115
TransferrinSystem reagent for
1 x 70 tests11115600

Required calibrators and controls

Urinary Total Protein (UTP)

The determination of total protein in urine supports the diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary kidney disease and the diagnosis of diseases associated with cardiac and thyroid function. Increased total protein concentration in the urine (proteinuria) is a very common urinary finding and is one of the leading symptoms of kidney disease in addition to reduced eGFR.

Increased total protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are observed in a variety of disease states of the central nervous system (CNS), e.g. cerebral haemorrhage, bacterial or viral meningitis, inflammatory CNS disorders and tumors.

Colorimetric test for the quantitative determination of total protein in human urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Kit nameReagent typeSizeREF
Urinary Total Protein liquicolor Multipurpose reagents3 x 30 ml10590
Urinary Total Protein liquicolorSystem reagent for
3 x 50 tests10590300

Required calibrators and controls